Topography of Indonesia

Topography of Indonesia

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Source: Flickr


The topography of Indonesia, being among the biggest archipelago in the world is made-up of three major regions; one of its regions comprises Sumatra, Kalimantan, Java, and the islands lying between them that stand on the shelf of Sunda with ocean depths of not more than seven-hundred feet.

Another region comprises the Aru Isles and Irian Jaya nestled on the ridge of Sahul, facing northward from Australia’s north coast that has the same depths. In the middle of the Sunda Shelf and Sahul shelf, is Indonesia’s remaining region that consists of the Maluku Islands, Sulawesi, and the Lesser Sunda Islands, surrounded by waters having depths that reach fifteen-thousand feet.

Large islands with central mountain ranges are also a part of the interesting topography of Indonesia, these mountains rise from relatively extensive coastal plains and lowlands. Another significant part of the topography of Indonesia that has played an important role in the creation of its more than seventeen thousand islands, are the countless inactive and a several numbers of active volcanoes that speckle the islands.

These volcanoes have been responsible for the mostly rich volcanic soil, which is carried down to lowlands and plains through its rivers; more than one-hundred volcanoes form part of the topography of Indonesia. Mountain peaks rise to twelve-thousand feet in Sumatra and Java; on the other hand, Lombok and Bali, as well as Java have wide-ranging lightly sloping cultivable ridges and lowland plains.

Another part that make up the topography of Indonesia is that of extensive swamp forests, as well as “not so” fertile country hills, which are found in Kalimantan. The eastern shoreline of Sumatra is bordered by floodplains, morasses, and alluvial terraces ideal for farther inland cultivation; Sulawesi has predominantly mountainous areas. Generally, the land area of Indonesia is covered by dense tropical rain forests in which fertile soils are incessantly replenished through volcanic eruptions.

The rich soils in Indonesia brought about by volcanic eruptions has become a remarkable part of the topography of Indonesia, where Latosol, Andosol, Lateritic, Podsol, Grumosol, Rendzina, and more types of soil, are among those found widespread. The Andosol soils are found to be quite fertile which has been suitable for their crop plantation such as tea in Java, as well as horticulture.

The significant topography of Indonesia, and its being the biggest archipelagic nation in the world, has contributed much to its growing economy and progress.